During World War II most anti-aircraft artillery rounds used explosive fragmentation warheads that scattered small pieces of the shell in all directions around the explosion. Early anti-aircraft artillery rounds used a time delay fuze that was set to detonate a specific time interval after firing. This time delay was calculated to detonate the shell at a desired altitude and was set into the projectile before firing. The time between the calculation of target height and actual firing of the gun caused significant errors, and the error increased as the target speed increased. Often the projectile exploded before reaching the target’s altitude or it passed by the target before exploding.
Here’s a great piece on the development of the continuous rod warhead for the Talos missile. Many other anti-aircraft missiles use a similar concept for their warheads.
I guess I’ll have to find one on annular blast fragmentation warheads.
Thanks to the MavF14D